美国疾控中心CDC关于--青少年的电子烟使用调查

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青少年在减少电子烟的使用,但总人数仍有三百六十万之多

2020年9月9日,美国疾控中心与其合作伙伴共同在“发病率和死亡率周报”上发布了两篇文章,内容突出了近期全美的电子烟使用和销售的变化。

根据2020年美国疾控中心和食药总局共同完成的国家青少年烟草问卷调查显示,该年度一共有360万青少年正在使用电子烟(在过去30天之内),同比2019年的540万使用人数有所下降。该问卷调查同时反映出青少年在电子烟产品的类型选择上产生了变化。虽然预装烟油的烟弹类仍是最普遍使用的,但是,一次性的电子烟使用量相较于2019年出现了爆炸式的增长(高中生增长了10倍、初中生增长了4倍)。

该问卷调查也显示了大多数(10个人中有8个)青少年表示使用带口味的电子烟,其中水果味和薄荷味最为普遍,薄荷醇类口味烟油的使用也很普遍。

“全美范围内青少年的电子烟使用率在下降,这是一个显著的改善群体健康的成果,但我们的工作还远未结束”,疾控中心主任Robert R. Redfield说道“青少年使用电子烟仍呈流行化的趋势,我们疾控中心承诺会尽一切努力来保护青少年避免这种可预防的健康风险”。

以上这些信息表明预装烟油的烟弹类电子烟仍占主导地位,但在过去一年中一次性电子烟呈持续增长态势。另外值得注意的是预装烟油的烟弹类电子烟购买量有超过五分之三(61.8%)的产品为薄荷醇口味。

国家青少年问卷调查显示一次性电子烟的使用量大幅增长

美国疾控中心和食药总局一起分析了2020年度1月16日至3月16日开展的针对初高中学生的烟草问卷调查。数据显示2020年19.6%的高中生及4.7%的初中生正在使用电子烟产品,同比2019年的27.5%和10.5%都所有下降。其中,使用的产品类型与2019年一致,预装烟油的烟弹类电子烟仍占主导地位。不过一次性的电子烟使用量对比2019年有大幅增加,在高中生使用群体里从2.4%增长到26.5%(1000%),在初中生使用群体里从3.0%增长到15.2%(400%)。

大部分使用电子烟的青少年都选择了带口味的产品

2020年度有82.9%的高中生和73.9%的初中生在使用电子烟时选择了带口味的产品。最受高中生欢迎的电子烟口味包括水果(73.1%)、薄荷(55.8%)、薄荷醇(37.0%)、以及糖果等其它甜味类(36.4%);最受初中生欢迎的口味包括水果(75.6%)、糖果等甜味类(47.2%)、薄荷(46.5%)、及薄荷醇(23.5%)。

零售渠道显示一次性电子烟及薄荷醇口味受欢迎程度开始上升

根据2014年9月到2020年5月17日由疾控中心主导的电子烟零售记录数据分析显示,预装烟油的烟弹类电子烟产品占主导地位,一次性电子烟的销量从2019年8月的10.3%上升到2020年5月的19.8%。在预装烟油的烟弹类电子烟中,薄荷口味产品的销量从2019年8月开始下滑,到2020年5月薄荷醇口味(61.8%)占到了口味类产品的主导地位。

针对青少年使用烟草产品我们还能够做些什么?

“这些发现再次提醒我们在减少青少年使用烟草产品的工作上要注重策略方法,”疾控中心慢性病预防和健康促进中心主任Karen Hacker提到“在全国、各州、及各当地实施正确的管控策略和方法对于减少青少年使用包括电子烟在内的烟草产品是一个整体性的工作”。

除了FDA对于烟草产品的生产制造、市场推广、产品销售过程的管控之外,我们还可通过其它的手段来减少青少年的电子烟使用比如提高售价、将电子烟纳入全面施行的无烟环境政策、限制青少年获取电子烟的渠道、零售商的授权、针对年轻人开展教育性质的倡议、约束吸引青少年的市场推广、实施策略减少青少年获得口味类电子烟产品的机会。

原文链接

https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2020/p0909-youth-e-cigarette-use-down.html

PressRelease

For Immediate Release: Wednesday, September 9, 2020

Contact: Media Relations

(404) 639-3286

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in collaborationwith various partners, released two papers today in Morbidity & MortalityWeekly Report (MMWR) highlighting recent changes in U.S. e-cigarette use andsales.

About 3.6 million U.S. youth reported current (in the past 30 days)e-cigarette use in 2020, reflecting a decline from 5.4 million in 2019,according to the National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) conducted in partnershipwith the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). NYTS also found that thetypes of e-cigarette products youth are using has shifted Among youthe-cigarette users, pre-filled cartridges remained the most commonly usedproduct type; however, disposable e-cigarette use has increased 1,000% amonghigh school students and 400% among middle school students since 2019.

NYTS findings also showed that most (8 in 10) current youth e-cigaretteusers reported using flavored e-cigarettes. While the use of fruit and mintflavored e-cigarettes was common among users in 2020, the use of mentholflavored e-cigarettes was also prominent.

“Although the decline in e-cigarette use among our Nation’s youth is anotable public health achievement, our work is far from over,” said CDCDirector Robert R. Redfield, MD. “Youth e-cigarette use remains an epidemic,and CDC is committed to supporting efforts to protect youth from thispreventable health risk.”

These findings were consistent with a second report released today in MMWR,which assessed trends in U.S. e-cigarette sales. Pre-filled cartridges remainthe leading type of e-cigarettes sold, but disposable product sales increasedwithin the past year. Moreover, among pre-filled cartridge sales, mentholflavored products comprised more than three-fifths (61.8%) of all flavoredproducts sold.

NYTS data show increase indisposable e-cigarette use

CDC and FDA analyzed data from the 2020 NYTS, a survey of U.S. middle(grades 6-8) and high (grades 9-12) school students conducted during January16–March 16, 2020.

In 2020, 19.6% of high school students and 4.7% of middle school studentscurrently used e-cigarettes, a decline from 27.5% and 10.5%, respectively, in2019. Consistent with 2019 findings, pre-filled pods/cartridges were the mostcommonly used device type among youth e-cigarette users. However, from 2019 to2020, disposable e-cigarette use increased from 2.4% to 26.5% (1,000%) amonghigh school e-cigarette users and from 3.0% to 15.2% (400%) among middle schoole-cigarette users.

Majority of youthe-cigarette users use flavored e-cigarettes

A majority of youth e-cigarette users reported using flavored e-cigarettesin 2020, including 82.9% of high school e-cigarette users and 73.9% of middleschool e-cigarette users.

Among high school students who currently used any type of flavorede-cigarettes, the most common flavors were fruit (73.1%); mint (55.8%); menthol(37.0%); and candy, desserts, or other sweets (36.4%). Among middle schoolstudents, the most common flavors were fruit (75.6%); candy, desserts, or othersweets (47.2%); mint (46.5%); and menthol (23.5%).

Retail sales indicate risein disposable products and menthol popularity

For the second study, CDC, in collaboration with the CDC Foundation andTruth Initiative, analyzed retail scanner data during September 14, 2014–May17, 2020, to assess trends in U.S. e-cigarette sales.

The retail sales data are consistent with the NYTS data. While pre-filledcartridges remained the leading product type sold, disposable sales increasedfrom 10.3% in August 2019 to 19.8% of total sales by May 2020. Among pre-filledcartridge sales, the proportion of mint sales declined beginning in August2019, and by May 2020, menthol (61.8%) dominated the market.

What more can be done aboutyouth tobacco use?

“These findings reinforce the importance of continuing to focus on thestrategies that work to reduce youth tobacco product use while keeping pacewith emerging trends in tobacco products,” said Karen Hacker, MD, MPH, Directorof CDC’s National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.“Implementing these strategies at the national, state, and local levels isintegral to preventing and reducing youth tobacco product use, includinge-cigarettes.”

In addition to regulating the manufacturing, marketing, and sale ofe-cigarettes by FDA, strategies to reduce e-cigarette use among youth include:increasing price, implementing comprehensive smoke-free policies that includee-cigarettes, restricting young peoples’ access to e-cigarettes, licensingretailers, developing educational initiatives targeting young people, curbingyouth-appealing marketing, and implementing strategies to reduce youth accessto flavored tobacco products.

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